The Toll of Tobacco in Indonesia | Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids
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Tobacco Use

  • Among Indonesian adults (age 15+) 33.8% use tobacco, including nearly two thirds of men (men 62.9%; women 4.8%).1
  • 19.2% of youth (ages 13–15) use tobacco (boys 35.6%; girls 3.5%).2
  • 18.8% of youth smoke, and 1% use smokeless tobacco.
  • Clove-flavored cigarettes called kreteks are the most widely consumed type of cigarette in Indonesia, representing about 95% of the cigarette market.3

Secondhand Smoke Exposure

  • More than half (51.3%) of all adults who work indoors are exposed to secondhand smoke at the workplace. 85.4% are exposed at restaurants and 70% on public transportation. 4
  • 66.2% of youth (ages 13-15) are exposed to secondhand smoke in enclosed public places, and 57.3% are exposed to secondhand smoke at home.2

Health Consequences

  • Tobacco kills about 290,000 people annually. More than 52,000 of these deaths are due to secondhand smoke exposure.5
  • Tobacco causes a quarter (25.3%) of all male deaths and 7.2% of female deaths. Overall, 17.0% of all deaths are caused by tobacco.5
  • Tobacco causes 59.6% of deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer, 59.3% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 28.6% of deaths from ischemic heart disease, 20.6% of deaths from diabetes mellitus, and 19.7% of deaths from stroke.5

Costs to Society

  • The total healthcare costs of smoking attributable diseases in Indonesia range between Rp17.9 trillion and Rp27.7 trillion, equal to 0.1% to 0.2% of Indonesia’s GDP. 6
  • Between 56.3% and 58.6% of the healthcare costs due to smoking are borne by the Social Security Administrative Body [for health care]. Covering these high and preventable healthcare costs makes-up between 86.3% to 87.6% of the Agency’s budget.6
    • The remaining healthcare expenses due to smoking (between 41.4% and 43.7%) are borne by individuals and families and include uncovered medical costs, out-of-pocket expenses, and transportation costs. These expenses can spur or maintain household poverty.6

Tobacco Industry

Indonesia is the second largest cigarette market in the world by retail volume. As of 2018, major tobacco companies in Indonesia included Philip Morris International subsidiary HM Sampoerna with 28.3% of the cigarette market share by volume (Philip Morris Indonesia holds an additional 4.8%), British American Tobacco subsidiary Bentoel Group with 7%, and domestic companies Gudang Garam with 25.2%, Djarum with 12.7%, and Nojorono Tobacco Indonesia with 4.2%. In 2018, 307.1 billion cigarettes were sold in Indonesia.5

FCTC Status

Indonesia is the only WHO member state in Southeast Asia that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. A 2009 national health law designates tobacco as an addictive substance.

Tobacco Control Policy Status

For a summary of smoke-free, advertising and promotion, packaging and labeling, and taxation and price measures, download the Indonesia Tobacco Control Policy Status fact sheet. For more information visit the Tobacco Control Laws website.

1 Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). Lembaga Penerbit Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (LPB), Ministry of Health, Indonesia. 2018.
2 Indonesia Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2019. Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, World Health Organization, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
3 Zheng R, Marquez PV, Ahsan A, Hu X, Wang Y. Cigarette affordability in Indonesia: 2002-2017. World Bank. 2018.
4 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Indonesia 2011.
5 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019. Seattle, WA: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), University of Washington; 2021. Available from:
6 Center for Indonesia’s Strategic Development Initiatives. (2021). The 2019 Health Care Cost of Smoking in Indonesia. Jakarta: CISDI.
7 Euromonitor International, 2019

Last updated August 26, 2021