Smoking and smokeless rates, deaths, and other state tobacco-related information
Adult smoking from CDC 2013 BRFSS online data; 2013 BRFSS rate is not comparable to years prior to 2011; youth tobacco use from state YRBS, YTS, or other state-specific surveys.
New underage daily smoker estimate based on data from U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services (HHS), “Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health,” with the state share of national initiation number based on CDC data on future youth smokers in each state compared to national total.
National adult smoking rate from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. National High school smoking and smokeless rates from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
State estimates of smoking-attributable deaths: CDC, Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs—2014.
Youth projected to die prematurely: The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014.
Packs illegally sold to kids or smoked by them
Healton, C, et al., “Youth smoking prevention and tobacco industry revenue,” Tobacco Control 15:103-106, 2006. See also, DiFranza, J. & J. Librett, "State and Federal Revenues from Tobacco Consumed by Minors," American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) 89(7): 1106-1108, July 1999; Cummings, et al., "The Illegal Sale of Cigarettes to US Minors: Estimates by State," AJPH 84(2): 300-302, February 1994.
Smoking-caused health expenditures, productivity losses, tax burdens
CDC, Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs, 2014. See also, CDC, Data Highlights 2006; CDC's Smoking Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Costs, SAMMEC, average annual smoking attributable productivity losses from 2000-2004 (updated to 2009 dollars). State Medicaid program expenditures are before any federal reimbursement. State and federal tax burdenequals state residents’ federal & state tax payments necessary to cover all state government tobacco-caused costs plus the residents’ pro-rata share, based on state populations, of all federal tobacco-caused costs. See Xu, X et al., “Annual Healthcare Spending Attributable to Cigarette Smoking: An Update,” Am J Prev Med, 2014, with other state government tobacco costs taken to be 3% of all state smoking-caused health costs, as in CDC, “Medical Care Expenditures Attributable to Smoking—United States, 1993,” MMWR 43(26):1-4, July 8, 1994. To make all of the cost data more comparable, they have been adjusted for inflation and updated to 2009 dollars.
Additional information on tobacco-related costs
U.S. Department of the Treasury, The Economic Costs of Smoking in the U.S. and the Benefits of Comprehensive Tobacco Legislation, 1998; F.J. Chaloupka & K.E. Warner, "The Economics of Smoking," in J. Newhouse $ A. Culyer (eds), The Handbook of Health Economics, 2000.
Tobacco industry marketing
U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Cigarette Report for 2012, 2015, See also, FTC, Smokeless Tobacco Report for 2012, 2015, State total a prorated estimate based on cigarette pack sales in the state. State total a prorated estimate based on cigarette pack sales in state. For tobacco marketing influence on youth, see Pollay, R., et al., "The Last Straw? Cigarette Advertising and Realized Market Shares Among Youths and Adults," Journal of Marketing 60(2):1-16, April 1996; Evans, N., et al., "Influence of Tobacco Marketing and Exposure to Smokers on Adolescent Susceptibility to Smoking," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87(20): 1538-45, October 1995; Pierce, J.P., et al., "Tobacco Industry Promotion of Cigarettes and Adolescent Smoking," Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 279(7): 511-505, February 1998 [with erratum in JAMA 280(5): 422, August 1998].
See, also Campaign factsheets, for more detailed information on these data.